What's the Puerto Rico Weather Radar Network Project?
An NSF MRI grant was awarded to UPRM for the development of a network of 3 short range dual polarized X-band Doppler radars. The Tropinet network will provide the capabilities for studying and understanding weather phenomena in the Puerto Rico tropical and mountainous environment with the necessary volume coverage and resolution. The radars were designed to operate in a collaborative network capable of targeting an event from multiple angles, to accurately estimate rainfall levels near the ground, and to detect precursors of future storms, all in response to changing end-user needs as demonstrated in the CASA IP1/IP5 radar network.
The first radar node of the Tropinet network was installed in March 2012 and site preparations are underway for the installation of the other two nodes that will comprise the Tropinet weather radar network. It is expected that the Tropinet network will cover the lowest part of the atmosphere and will supplement the current S-band radar coverage. This project will provide opportunities in a new area of research and research training through increase interaction between students and faculty from UPRM, CSU, UMass and the National Weather Service.
Earth Curvature Effect on Weather Radar Scanning
Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere
CASA, the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere, seeks to revolutionize the way we detect, monitor and predict atmospheric phenomena by creating a distributed collaborative adaptive sensor network that sample the atmosphere where and when end user needs are greatest. This system has the potential of having a profound impact on the society in terms of lives, property and the economy.
Our goal is to dramatically increase the warning time and forecast accuracy for tornadoes, flash floods, land-falling hurricanes, and other airborne hazards that impact millions of people across the US every single day. CASA will engineer an entirely new approach based on a dense network of low-power radars that overcome curvature blockage and achieve significantly enhanced resolution compared to today’s systems. The system will have a new generation of meteorological software that allows the radars to focus their beams down onto individual storms and actually track those events. The CASA concept is referred to as distributed collaborative adaptive sensing technology, or DCAS.
Puerto Rico Test Bed
The Puerto Rico Test Bed (PRTB) serves to introduce students to system level engineering, develop the foundation for a test bed in Puerto Rico and explore high-density DCAS networks for precipitation estimation and mapping while advancing CASA’s strategic planning and goals in developing low infrastructure radar networks. This test bed is being led by a multi-level, multi-institutional team of students, ranging from Undergraduate to Ph.D. level, from a variety of scientific and engineering fields, within the core and outreach CASA partner campuses.
The system we use are low infrastructure and low power Off-The-Grid (OTG) radars and another radar which was donated to UPRM by EWR and installed in the UPRM Engineering building rooftop. Progress in the development of the PRTB includes the calibration and validation, sensitivity improvement of the UPRM-OTG radar prototype and its sensing capability evaluation in collaboration with CSU using the CHILL radar, research on energy-constrained networks and wireless sensor networking in the MA OTG Test Bed, development of a Disaster Decision Support Tool for the emergency managers, hydrological models, rainfall estimation algorithms and the development of a radar visualization web application portlet within the PRTB Web Portal.
Click here for the full list of contributions our project has made to the scientific community.
R. Rodriguez-Solis, J. Colom-Ustáriz, S. Cruz-Pol, L. Leon-Colón, "Microwave Research at the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez", Invited Paper, IEEE MTT IMS2014, Tampa, FL, Jun 2014
Jorge M. Trabal, J. G. Colom-Ustáriz, S. L. Cruz-Pol, G. A. Pablos-Vega, and D. J. McLaughlin , "Remote Sensing of Weather Hazards Using a Low-Cost and Minimal Infrastructure Off-the-Grid Weather Radar Network ", IEEE Trans. on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 51 , Issue: 5 pp. 2541 - 2555 , May 2013
K. M. Mora-Navarro, L. V. León Colón, J.G. Colom-Ustáriz and S. Cruz-Pol , Implementation and Development of an Attenuation Correction Algorithm for Off-The-Grid X-Band Radar Network , Austin, TX, 93rd American Meteorological Society Annual Meeting Jan 5-10, 2013
R. Kvasov, P. Rees, J. Ortiz, S. Cruz-Pol, J. Colom-Ustariz, “Weather Radar Data Visualization Using the First-Order Interpolation”, IEEE International Geoscience and Remoste Sensing Simposium (IGARSS 2013), Australia, July 2013
L. Torres, E. Harmsen, S. Cruz Pol, “Flood Alert System Using Rainfall Forecast Data in the Western Puerto Rico”, IEEE IGARSS 2013, Australia, July 2013
K. Mora-Navarro, L. Leon-Colon, J. Colom-Ustáriz, S. Cruz-Pol, Christopher Demel, “Polarization Effects On A Single Polarized Radar Off-The-Grid X-Band Radar”, IEEE IGARSS 2013, Australia, July 2013
M. B. Galvez, J. G. Colom, V. Chandrasekar, F. Junyent, S. Cruz-Pol, R. A. Rodriguez Solis, L. Leon, J. J. Rosario-Colon, B. De Jesus, J. A. Ortiz,” First Observations Of The Initial Radar Node In The Puerto Rico Tropinet X-Band Polarimetric Doppler Weather Testbed,” IEEE IGARSS 2013, Australia, July 2013
S. Cruz-Pol, La falacia de los productos Anti-bacteriales, Periodico Visión, p.14, Jun 22-Jul 3, 2013
Jorge M. Trabal, Gianni A. Pablos-Vega, José A. Ortiz, José G. Colom-Ustáriz, Sandra Cruz-Pol, David J. McLaughlin, Michael Zink & V. Chandrasekhar “Off-the-Grid Weather Radar Network for Precipitation Monitoring in Western Puerto Rico, “ Weather Radar and Hydrology (Proceedings of a symposium held in Exeter, UK, April 2011) (IAHS Publ. 3XX, 2011). WRaH 2011, International Symposium on Weather Radar and Hydrology.
Jorge M. Trabal, José Colom-Ustáriz, Gianni Pablos-Vega, José Ortiz, Wilson Castellano, Sandra Cruz-Pol, Leyda León and Rafael Rodríguez-Solis, “Low Cost and Minimal Infrastructure Off-The-Grid X- Band Radar Network Development for the West Coast of Puerto Rico”, IEEE RadarCon ’11, Kansas City, MI. May 2011
Sionel A. Arocho-Meaux, Ariel Mercado-Vargas, Gianni A. Pablos-Vega, Eric W. Harmsen and Sandra Cruz-Pol, “Calibration And Validation Of Casa Radar Rainfall Estimation”, AWRA Summer Specialty Conference, San Juan, PR, Aug 2010.
Cruz-Pol, Sandra, “Eficiencia y Conservación de Energía en el Hogar:”, Revista Corriente Verde, Aug 2012
Gianni A. Pablos-Vega, José G. Colom-Ustáriz, Sandra Cruz-Pol, Jorge M. Trabal, V. Chandrasekar, Jim George, and Francesc Junyent, “Development Of An Off-The-Grid X-Band Radar For Weather Applications” IEEE International Geoscience and Remoste Sensing Simposium (IGARSS),2010, Hawaii, July 2010.
Miguel B. Galvez, José G. Colom, V. Chandrasekar, Francesc Junyent, Sandra Cruz-Pol, Rafael Rodriguez, "Salient Features of The Radar Nodes In The Puerto Rico Tropical Weather Testbed" IGARSS 2009, Cape Town, South Africa, July 15, 2009.
Eric W. Harmsen, Alejandra M. Rojas González and Sandra Cruz Pol, “Evaluation of NEXRAD Rainfall Estimation and Hydrologic Response Using a High Density Rain Gauge Network in a Small Tropical Watershed”, ASCE 138th Annual Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, Nov 6-8, 2008
D. McLaughlin, D. Pepyne, B. Philips, J. Kurose, M. Zink, E. Knapp, D. Westbrook, E. Lyons, A. Hopf, A. DeFonzo, R. Contreras, T. Djaferis, E. Insanic, S. Frasier, V. Chandrasekar, F. Junyent, N. Bharadwaj, J. Liu, Y. Wang, K. Droegemeier, M. Xue, J. Brotzge, F. Carr, K. Kloesel, K. Brewster, S. Cruz-Pol, K. Hondl, “Short-Wavelength Technology And The Potential For Distributed Networks Of Small Radar Systems” , Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS), Great Britain, October 2008
Cruz Pol, S. L.,”Teoría y Diseño de Antenas”, UPRM, 2010
Eric W. Harmsen,Santa Elizabeth Gomez Mesa, Edvier Cabassa, Nazario D. R. Beltran, Sandra Cruz Pol , Robert J. Kuligowski ,Ramón Vasquez, “Satellite Sub-Pixel Rainfall Variability”, WSEAS Transactions on Signal Processing, Issue 8, Volume 7, October 2008.
Sandra Cruz-Pol, “Come para frenar el Calentamiento Global,” Revista Corriente Verde, Ago 2010
Sandra Cruz-Pol, “¿Cuánto Sabes…de Reciclaje? ,” Revista Corriente Verde, Ago 2010
Sandra Cruz-Pol, “Insecticidas Eco-Amistosos: baratos, naturales y no dan asma “, Revista Corriente Verde, Ago 2010
Gianni Pablos, Sandra Cruz-Pol, José Colom, María Córdoba, Wilson Castellanos, Melisa Acosta y Benjamín De Jesús, “Red de Radares Meteorológicos con Energía Solar” Revista Corriente Verde, Dec. 2010
Ramirez-Beltran, N. D., R. J. Kuligowski, E. W. Harmsen, J. M. Castro, S. Cruz-Pol, M. J. Cardona-Soto, "Validation and Strategies to Improve of Hydro-Estimator and NEXRAD over Puerto Rico,” 12th WSEAS Intl Conference, Greece, July 2008
Harmsen, E.W., Santa Elizabeth Gomez Mesa, N. Ramirez-Beltran , S. Cruz-Pol, R. J. Kuligowski , R. Vásquez-Espinosa, “Remote Sensing QPE Uncertainties Associated with Sub-Pixel Rainfall Variation” 12th WSEAS Intl Conference, Greece, July 2008
"Nazario D. Ramirez, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR; and S. Cruz-Pol, R. J. Kuligowski, J. M. Castro, and X. Ortiz,Validation of the hydro-estimator rainfall retrieval algorithm over Puerto Rico", 22nd Conference on Hydrology, The AmericanMeteorological Society, Jan 2008.
McLaughlin, David J., V. Chandrasakar , Jim Kurose, Kelvin Droegemeier and Sandra Cruz-Pol, "Short Wavelength Technology and the Potential for Distributed Networks of Short-Range Radar Systems", IEEE IGARSS 06, Colorado, 2006.
Cruz Pol, S. L., José Maeso, Margarita Baquero “DSD characterization and computations of expected reflectivity using data from a Two-Dimensional Video Disdrometer deployed in a Tropical Environment”, IEEE IGARSS 05, Korea., 2005.
Cruz Pol, S. L., Margarita Baquero, V. Bringi and V. Chandrasekar, ”Rain-Rate Estimate Algorithm Evaluation and Rainfall Characterization in Tropical Environments Using 2DVD, Rain Gauges and TRMM data”, IEEE IGARSS 05, Korea, 2005. (submitted)
Colom. J. G., S. Cruz-Pol, V. Marrero, V. Bringi, and K. Droegemeier, "Multi-Campus Courses Via video conference: An Assesment," ITHET 05, Dominican Replublic, 2005.
Morales J., J. Trabal, S. L. Cruz-Pol, and S. M. Sekelsky, "Ice Water Content (IWC) Retrieval from Cirrus Clouds Using Millimeter-Wave Radar and In-Situ Ice Crystal Airborne Data," IEEE IGARSS 05, Korea., 2005.
McLaughlin, D.J., V. Chandrasekar, K. Droegemeier, S. Frasier, J. Kurose, F. Junyent, B. Philips, S. Cruz-Pol, and J. Colom, 2005: Distributed Collaborative Adaptive Sensing (DCAS) for Improved Detection, Understanding, and Prediction of Atmospheric Hazards. 9th Symp. Integrated Obs. Assim. Systems - Atmos. Oceans, Land Surface (IOAS-AOLS), Amer. Meteor. Soc., San Diego, CA., Jan 2005.
Cruz-Pol, S., "Built your Own Electronic Piano Workshop for K-12 students", International Conference on Engineering Education (ICEE 04), FL, Oct 18-20 2004.
Morales, J.; Trabal, J., Cruz-Pol, S. and Sekelsky, S., "Cirrus Clouds Millimeter-Wave Reflectivity Comparison with In-Situ Ice Crystal Airborne Data", SPIE 04, Hawaii, Nov 8-12, 2004.
León-Colón, L., S. Cruz-Pol, and S. Sekelsky, “Active Rain Gauge Concept for Moderate to Heavy Precipitation Using W-Band and S-Band Doppler Radars”; IGARSS 03, Toulouse, France, 2003.
Trabal, J, Cruz-Pol, S, Colom, J.G., Sekelsky, S, “Puerto Rico Radar Network Design; Site Survey “, IGARSS 03, France, 2003.
Colom, J., Cruz-Pol S. and Sekelsky S., “An Undergraduate/Graduate Research Collaboration between UMASS and UPRM, “ASEE 2003 International Conference on Engineering Education (ICEE’03), Valencia, Spain, 2003.
Bartolomei S., and Cruz-Pol S, “An Electrical Engineering Module for Women in Engineering”, Proceeding for the 2003 American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Annual Conference and Exposition, Nashville, TN, 2003.
Cruz Pol, S., M. Vélez, J. Colom, R. Rodríguez, H. Parsiani, L. Jiménez, R. Vásquez, “Laboratory for Remote Sensing and Image Processing”, IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Newsletter, Dec. 2001.
Colom, J.G., and Cruz Pol, S. L., “Remote Sensing Modules to Increase Interest in Traditional Difficult Courses ", IGARSS 2001 Symposium, Sydney, Australia, 2001.
León-Colón, L.V. , S.L. Cruz-Pol, and S.M. Sekelsky, "Active Rain-Gauge Concept for Liquid Clouds using Verticaly oriented W-band and S-band Doppler radars", SPIE 9th International Symposium on Remote Sensing, Crete, Greece, 2002.
Colón-Díaz, Nivia, S.M. Sekelsky, and S.L. Cruz-Pol, "Cloud Images retrieval and Characterization using a Ground-based dual-wavelength millimeter radar", SPIE 9th International Symposium on Remote Sensing, Crete, Greece, 2002.
Villa, J. M., S.L. Cruz-Pol, and S.M. Sekelsky, "Modeling, Simulation and Comparison Study of Cirrus Clouds Ice Crystals", SPIE 9th International Symposium on Remote Sensing, Crete, Greece, 2002.
Villa, J., Cruz-Pol, S. and Sekelsky, S. , "Performance of Scanning Millimeter-Wave Radar in a Tropical Environment," IGARSS 2002, Toronto, Canada, 2002.
Cruz Pol, S. and Colom Ustáriz, J., "A Case Study: High Percentage of Women in Engineering College at UPRM", Wepan Conference 2002, San Juan, PR, June 2002.
Cruz Pol, S. L., N. Colón and S. Sekelsky, " Multidimensional Cloud Images Retrieval From Dual- Frequency Millimeter-Wave Radar ", IGARSS 2001 Sydney, Australia, July 2001.
Cruz Pol, S. L., and C. S. Ruf, "A Modified Model for the Sea Surface Emissivity at Microwave Frequencies," IEEE Trans. on Geosciense and Remote Sensing, Vol. 38 No. 2, pp. 858-869, 2000.
Cruz Pol, S. L., “Relevance Of The Modified Model For The Microwave Brightness Temperature To The TOPEX/Poseidon Satellite Altimetry Mission” SPIE 99, Denver , CO, July 1999.
Cruz Pol, S. L., C. S. Ruf and S. J. Keihm, "Modified Model for the Microwave Sea Surface Emissivity", IGARSS '99 Symposium, Germany, 1999.
Cruz Pol, S. L., C. S. Ruf and S. J. Keihm, “Improved 20-32 GHz Atmospheric Absorption Model,” Radio Science, Vol. 33, No. 5, pp1319-1333, September-October 1998.
Cruz Pol, S. L., C. S. Ruf and S. J. Keihm, "Improved 20-32 GHz Atmospheric Absorption Model", IGARSS '96 Symposium, Vol. 3, pp 1435-1437, 1996.